360 degree photospheres

Reflections on our virtual reality projects - part 2

In this second part, we continue with the first part of our reflections on virtual reality (VR) projects in the previous blog post.

Google Expeditions

Students looking at the Google Expedition of solar system via Google Cardboard, a Virtual Reality viewer

Students looking at the Google Expedition of solar system via Google Cardboard, a Virtual Reality viewer

The desktop-based and graphics-intensive virtual reality applications that we discussed in part 1 (previous blog-post) have given way to smartphone-driven virtual reality (VR). Smartphone-driven VR has democratised the use of virtual reality as it has become accessible.

Virtual reality apps such as Google Expeditions run on a smart phone. You need viewers of the kind shown in the picture above called Google Cardboard. The virtual reality viewers such as Google Cardboard and Daydream have two lenses, and just as it with our eyes, these two lens combine the images together to give the stereoscopic effect.

In Google-funded project, we have conducted research on Google Expeditions (GEs) to investigate the role that this virtual reality app could play in education. 

Google Expeditions (GEs) are guided field trips to places that students experience on a smartphone through a VR viewer called Google Cardboard. The GE app (available for Android and iOS platforms) has more than 500 expeditions. An expedition comprises of 360 degree photospheres of a location (e.g. Rio de Janeiro). GEs enable visualisation of locations which may not be feasible or easy to visit in real life (e.g. Great Barrier Reef or Tolbachik volcano). 

Further, GEs have simulations to envision concepts and systems such as the human heart, the respiratory system, or the process of pollination.

Using a Tablet and via the GEs app, the educator guides the students to look at the scenes of an expedition. The students use the app in the ‘follower’ mode and experience the GE/VR through the smart-phone embedded within the VR viewer. Based on our feedback, Google went onto to modify this mode of operation. Now students can look at the expeditions on their own via the VR viewers without having somebody to guide them through an expedition via the Tablet.

We investigated whether GEs could support inquiry-based learning in science and geography education; and whether GEs, as virtual field trips, support fieldwork education.

We found that students felt the sense of presence while experiencing virtual field trips - as if they were there. There is a sense of realism when you can look around. The effect of phenomenon such as coral bleaching in the Great Barrier Reef was quite evident and strong - where students enquired higher-order questions - which are more towards investigating phenomena rather than just asking what it was. It is not possible to view the process of pollination - but you can do so in a simulated environment in Google Expeditions. Human anatomy and systems that students may not experience - you can see them in a  360 degree view and they were able to ask questions and see the inter-relationships between the circulatory system and the respiratory system. 

The project web-page has links to blog-posts related to our research on GEs.

Ana-Despina Tudor and I, with support from colleagues in Google, Field Studies Council, Association for Science Association and Geographical Association, carried out this project and continue to reflect and publish our results.

Virtual inclusion via 360 degree videos

A scene from one of the 360 degree videos in the Virtual Inclusion app

A scene from one of the 360 degree videos in the Virtual Inclusion app

The project ‘Virtual Inclusion: Tackling Hate and Extremism in the UK Using Virtual Reality Technology’ received funding from the partnership between Google and the London-based think-tank Institute of Strategic Dialogue (ISD).

We have designed and developed 360 degree videos - 360 degree videos have a great power of story-telling. We have three scenarios depicting three non-British children and from different backgrounds. The scenarios show the somewhat bullying nature of other students towards them - either because of the colour of their skin, or they can’t speak very good English. The scenarios ask the viewers about the path they would choose at the end - some resolutions - and the viewers are expected to reflect on the scenarios and propose a way forward. These scenarios highlight elements of hate but sensitise the viewers about the significance of empathy and understanding towards others. These scenarios are lessons in citizenship and promote social inclusion and tolerance together with a positive message of anti-hate and anti-extremism. 

The 360 degree videos are an example of experiential learning - learning by experience but also reflective learning - where you are reflecting on what you have seen - why there is hatred? why the bullying and learn how you would not treat others the way that you have seen it.

Although these 360 degree videos have been developed for UK schools of 9-11 years of age, they are in the process being posted on Open Learn, our university’s site that hosts free educational resources for all. We are hopeful that these scenarios will be used in other countries, at other levels of education for students higher/lower than this age group.

Youtube 360 playlist with spatial sound of this project is here. The app is currently in the process of being approved before it can be made available for iOS and Android users. A WebGL browser version of the app will also be made available.

Our colleague Peter Bloom in the Department of People and Organisations at The Open University leads on this project. Other team members are Evangelia Baralou and me.

Reflections on the role of virtual reality in education

Being involved in projects such as that of Google Expeditions and Virtual Inclusion that involve emerging technologies, we realise their educational potential. This enables us to come up with applications of these technologies for our students. So, it leads to evidence-based teaching for us.

Which ever technology we employ in our curriculum, it is critical that it has a definite role (over and beyond the current ways of learning and teaching) in the curriculum. So, for social care workers who study with us at the university, we are developing a simulation in an avatar-based 3D environment where they experience several risks that they may encounter when they visit people’s homes. Through this simulation, they will learn how to address those risks - so, it is a training environment for them.

To simulate risky scenarios is expensive in real life and are difficult to set up - and they can only be used once or twice while they are set up. However, in a 3D simulation, students can practise as many times as you would like. This repetition is particularly useful in procedural learning - so, if a medical student has to learn using an instrument - they can practice repeatedly in this virtual environment. So, when they go to the lab, they will use the instrument for whatever experiment they need to conduct rather than learning how to use the instrument - saving on the otherwise expensive lab time.

VR will increasingly become a mainstream technology and will be particularly useful for these training applications:

  • Simulating risky environments - e.g. after-fire investigation, accident investigation

  • In forensic science education

  • in medical education - e.g. 3D models of human anatomy and physiology

  • in nursing, nurses can learn to interact with patients; in midwifery

  • for skills-development - e.g.presentation skills, interviewing skills

  • to understand processes - such as visiting places that may not be able to visit in real life - e.g. bottom of the ocean floor to study the effects of climate change on oceanic life; to study environmental change in Borneo rain forests - affected by palm plantations, clearing of forests for creating infrastructure for tourists

  • fund-raising - for creating empathy via 360 degrees videos such as people affected by floods; 360 degree videos and VR can help in raising the plight of children in war-torn areas.

VR will soon become a norm in learning and teaching applications and in marketing.

Virtual Reality for Employability Skills

Photo from the workshop of the Employability and Scholarship Network of The Open University, UK. Participants are looking at Google Expeditions via the virtual reality viewers.

Photo from the workshop of the Employability and Scholarship Network of The Open University, UK. Participants are looking at Google Expeditions via the virtual reality viewers.

Blog-authors

Professor Shailey Minocha and Dr Ana-Despina Tudor

About the event

On 20th July 2017, we (Dr Ana-Despina Tudor and Professor Shailey Minocha) presented at the workshop titled Employability in a distance learning context: using virtual reality of the Employability Scholarship Network of The Open University (OU), UK. Presentation-file (pdf)

Virtual Reality for Employability Skills

Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in almost all domains starting from arts, environmental causes to medical education and disaster management training, and to supporting patients with Dementia. Thus, an awareness of the virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability skills for current and future workplaces.

Virtual Reality Technologies

At this event, our aim was to introduce the audience to a variety of virtual reality technologies. These technologies range from 3D virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life), to 3D virtual environments developed in gaming environments such as in Unity 3D, 360-degree videos in the Chrome browsers, and to 360-degree photospheres in Google Expeditions (Figure 1). We have described these virtual reality technologies in our blog-post: Virtual Reality in Education 

Figure 1:  Virtual Reality Technologies with increasing mobility of the usage of the technology

Figure 1: Virtual Reality Technologies with increasing mobility of the usage of the technology

Google Expeditions - mobile virtual reality

In the presentation, we next took the example of Google Expeditions App to discuss how the affordances of this App which we have empirically-derived in our an year-long project on Google Expeditions support pedagogical approaches of experiential learning, bridging virtual fieldwork with physical field trips, and inquiry-based learning. Our aim was to demonstrate the potential of simple and mobile virtual reality technologies such as in Google Expeditions in learning and teaching.

We gave a demonstration of Google Expeditions to give the participants an experience of looking at virtual reality through virtual reality viewers. The above photo shows participants viewing the Google Expeditions App on a smartphone inserted within the Google Cardboard

Virtual Reality and Employability

Depending upon the opportunities available to educators, we feel that for employability, at a minimum students should be made aware of virtual reality technologies and their potential. If time and curriculum allows, students should be made aware of the role virtual technology can play in learning and skills development and, finally, how virtual reality is being used in workplace practices (Figure 2).

Figure 2 : Three key areas related to virtual reality and employability

Figure 2: Three key areas related to virtual reality and employability

In Figure 3 below, we have 'unpacked' each of the areas in Figure 2 to illustrate how virtual reality technologies are being used in workplaces for learning, training, skills, development but virtual reality technologies are becoming integral to educational institutions, healthcare and businesses. 

Figure 3:    The way virtual reality is being used in each of the areas

Figure 3: The way virtual reality is being used in each of the areas

Resources

For more information on our research on mobile virtual reality via Google Expeditions, please see the web-page of our project

Virtual reality in education

Photos from the session (taken by Dr Ana-Despina Tudor)

Blog authors

Professor Shailey Minocha and Dr Ana-Despina Tudor

Context

We (Dr Ana-Despina Tudor and Professor Shailey Minocha) presented at an event organised by the Learning Design and Technology Enhanced Learning Special Interest Group of the Learning and Teaching Innovation unit of The Open University (OU) on 20 September 2017.

These are some key points of our talk in conjunction with our presentation (pdf file)

Virtual Reality Technologies

In our overview of virtual reality technologies, we highlighted four technologies on which we have conducted research over the last decade:

  • 3D multi-user avatar-based virtual worlds, e.g. Second Life;
  • 3D virtual environments developed in gaming environments such as in Unity 3D;
  • 360-degree videos that run in Chrome browser; and
  • Smartphone-driven virtual reality (VR) or mobile VR through VR viewers such as Google Cardboard.

In the last couple of years, there has been a move towards mobile VR – where VR applications run on smartphones and the VR immersive environment is recreated through the VR viewers.

We now describe each of the technologies and refer to the slide numbers of the presentation for easy reference.

Second Life

Second Life (slides 3-4) is a 3D virtual world where users interact via avatars and through voice, text and gestures. At the OU, we have used Second Life spaces to run tutorials with our distance-education students, for one-to-one meetings with PhD or MSc students, and for running conferences. We have used Second Life in our research projects – both as a research environment (for example, on the design of learning spaces in Second Life – realism and non-realism of spaces and how they influence student experience; link to one of our papers in OU's research repository), or as a venue to recruit participants, or to use Second Life spaces to interact with our research participants (e.g. workshops, interviews, seminars).

3D virtual environments in Unity 3D

In 2013, we developed a virtual geology field trip in a gaming environment of Unity 3D. Our aim was to have a private space for our students to interact in. OU has been developing virtual fieldwork components for its distance students for decades (interactive activities and videos on DVDs, Web-based interactive activities aided by videos, sample data, etc.). For example, an activity as a part of a virtual environmental field trip is available in OU’s Open Science Lab With so few opportunities to gain fieldwork experience, distance-learning students would be disadvantaged without an alternative, hence the impetus for our innovation – developing virtual geology field trip – Virtual Skiddaw - a virtual field trip (VFT) in a 3D gaming engine (slides 6-11)

Virtual Skiddaw presents geological fieldwork in a 3D immersive digital landscape created using real world data from part of the northern Lake District in the UK.The 3D virtual geology field trip - Virtual Skiddaw has several realistic features to create an ‘authentic learning space’: the landscape has been developed from data acquired directly from the area; an authentic soundtrack has been weaved into the experience to increase immersion and the feeling of actually being there in the Skiddaw mountains; and the audio guidance from the ‘virtual tutor’ audio mimics a typical field trip.

Further, the emphasis throughout the VFT is on the user - observing recording and assembling data and questioning it, navigating from site to site and ultimately piecing together the clues to the geological story. The ‘authentic’ learning experience is certainly richer and more interactive than reading a textbook or clicking through a static (2D) website, and hence more effective for learning.

There is a video of a short demo of Virtual Skiddaw at this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfbA1s9uRoU 

Please refer to this paper for more details about Virtual Skiddaw.

360-degree videos in the Chrome browser

In the Chrome browser, you can run 360-degree videos and navigate around the 3D space using the controller (up and down and sideways and all around) provided in YouTube in the Chrome browser (see slide 13). Such videos are becoming increasingly common in raising people’s interest in VR and in campaigns where developing other kinds of 3D environments would be expensive. For example, Economist’s Oceans VR app (to be run in Chrome browser) has 360-degree video which makes the case for limiting fishing on the high seas. It gives a perspective on the issue by allowing the user to navigate the ocean as fish, fisherman, consumer and policy maker. These 360-degree videos can also run via an app on a smartphone and by viewing them via the VR viewer such as the Google Cardboard.

This article on the role of 360-degree videos in education might be of interest: The Benefits of 360-degree videos and Virtual Reality in Education.

Smartphone-driven virtual reality

The field of education can be a key beneficiary of the smartphone-based VR application (app) trend as it can build on the previous adoption of apps in schools. Smartphone-based VR apps allow users to access and navigate 360-degree photospheres, or 360-degree videos of real or simulated places for educational purposes. VR can also provide experiences of unrealistic events, such as bringing dinosaurs to life in 360-degree videos, a collaboration between Google Arts and Culture and UK’s Natural History Museum. The Google Expeditions app with 360-degree photospheres has been the focus of our Google-funded research over the last year and a half.

Google Expeditions (GEs)  are guided field trips to places that students experience on a smartphone through a VR viewer called Google Cardboard. The GEs app (available for Android and iOS platforms) has currently over 700 expeditions. An expedition comprises of 360-degree photospheres of locations such as Grand Canyon, Antarctica and Iceland. Further, GEs have 360-degree simulations to envision concepts and systems such as the human heart, the respiratory system, or the process of pollination.

At this event (see slides 15-20), we described the technological affordances of GEs. Based on a large exploratory study, we discussed how these empirically-derived affordances support pedagogical approaches of experiential learning, bridging virtual fieldwork with physical field trips, and inquiry-based learning. Please see this paper on affordances of GEs.

Virtual Reality and Employability

We highlighted three areas of VR that students should be aware of for employability (see slides 21-23):

  • having a general awareness of VR and the technologies;
  • role of VR in learning, training and skills development; and
  • being aware of the use of VR in the workplace in a wide variety of domains and applications.

The slide 23 in our presentation describes the three bullet-points related to VR and employability. We have elaborated on virtual reality and employability skills in another blog-post

The future

We discussed that VR has now become accessible due to the mobility element as there are VR apps now that run on smartphones and there is a facility to watch 360-degree videos within the Web browser. As a result, the uptake of VR is becoming easy and we will see more of VR applications being integrated in education, in training and development in workplaces, and in the industry.

However, as with any other technology-enabled learning initiative, the role of educator is paramount - how the educator embeds the technology (VR in the context of this article) within the curriculum and designs activities around it, and, most importantly, how the educator is able to justify/explain to the student, peers and managers about the role that VR will play in student learning, engagement and attainment.

Resources

Please have a look at our list of publications in OU's Research repository for papers and reports related to the role of virtual reality and 3D virtual worlds in education. 

Also, as you scroll down our web-page of the Google Expeditions project, you will find links to a number of blog-posts from our experiences of investigating the role of mobile VR as in Google Expeditions in inquiry-based learning, in fieldwork education, and in experiential learning. 

Google Expeditions: Comparing the "explorer" experiences on Tablets and Virtual Reality viewers

iPads set-up for students ("explorers") and educator ("guide") ahead of a lesson using Google Expeditions (Photo courtesy: Dr. Ana-Despina Tudor) 

THE PROJECT AND GOOGLE EXPEDITIONS

The Open University (OU), UK is conducting a school-based research project (funded by Google and the OU; July 2016 - June 2017) on the potential use of Virtual Reality via Google Expeditions in secondary school science and geography.

Google Expeditions is a Virtual Reality (VR) approach being promoted by Google in schools globally. Google Expeditions are guided tours (field trips) of places that students experience on a smartphone through a VR viewer called Google cardboard.  

GOOGLE EXPEDITIONS KIT

When we have been visiting schools as a part of our research project, we have noted that the main obstacle for adopting Google Expeditions in schools is the cost of the equipment, and especially the constraint of not having 1:1 smartphones for their students.

In January 2017, we worked with a school which has 1:1 iPads for its students from Year 4 onwards, to investigate student and educator experiences of Google Expeditions on iPads, and how the experiences compare with using smartphone driven VR through VR viewers.

HOW iPads FARED IN COMPARISON WITH SMARTPHONE-DRIVEN VIRTUAL REALITY?

These are some of our reflections:

  • Students normally use the iPads on stands. They found that iPads (with their protective covers) were heavy to move around to view the Expeditions. “I liked the virtual reality [VR-viewer] because it was lighter to hold and it’s smaller.”
  • Some of the students reverted back to keeping the iPad on the stand and using the fingers to swipe through the screen – a mode of interaction that they are used to. For these students who reverted to a stationary iPad, the 360-degree experience was different and less engaging due to moving restrictions. Another student remarked: “I prefer the virtual reality [VR-Viewer] because it wasn’t hard to use. The iPads [the scene] wouldn’t move when you moved it, but the virtual reality [VR viewer] did.” 
  • The educator felt the students were more distracted in the iPad lesson as compared to the VR-viewer lesson. Once the VR-viewers are close to the student’s eyes, they have an individual focused experience and are not so much affected by others in the room and events around them.  The educator said:“it [VR-viewer-lesson] was much more self-directed. There was a lot less low-level disruption. They were looking and taking to their partners, but it was on task as compared to just spinning randomly…”
  • The sense of presence – or the sense of being there was perceived to be more in the VR-viewer lessons by the students: “because it looks more realistic and you can hold it to your face... and so it feels like you are there…but you can’t with the iPad.”
  • Moreover, students could zoom in and out on the iPad – an interaction which also comes naturally to Tablet users.
  • If the students were pointing to a particular aspect of the Expedition for clarification by the teacher, the educator found it easier to address that in the iPad classes as she could walk over to the student and look at their iPad screen.
  • The educator suggested that having both iPads and VR-viewers in the lesson could be helpful: VR-viewers facilitate self-exploration and immersive ‘individual’ experience of the expeditions. iPads could be used for group-work, discussion in pairs, for accessing other Apps, and for discussions that involve the entire class - when the teacher uses the iPad to display the expedition using the classroom projector. Students also pointed out that that both technologies can be helpful: “Both of them helped me learn because [on] the iPad I saw it in detail and the VR [virtual reality] was getting the experience better.”
  • Some students preferred the larger screen of an iPad: “it [iPad] gave the picture larger. You didn’t have to put the iPad on your face. It gave me the full look around and gave the chance to move [within the scene] with nothing on me. Sometimes my eyes got fuzzy with virtual reality [VR viewer] compared to the iPad. You could see the bit she [the educator] was talking about clearer and nice and big [on the iPad].”

The educator, after having reflected on the activities that the students carried out in the lessons, concluded: “They do both [iPads and smartphone-driven VR viewers] help learning, but you do get a bit more from the VR experience. However, as a compromise, if you haven’t got the VR [equipment], you could do it with iPads.”

With over 400 expeditions, the Google expeditions App provides a very rich resource for teaching and learning, and for virtual field trips. The educator added: “if you have a small group [of students], have a few iPads out… they can explore something [in the expeditions] even just to enhance their awareness of this technology…start planting the seeds of how will that [VR] work.”

The Project team

Dr. Matthew Kam, Research Lead, Google Education

Professor Shailey Minocha and Dr Ana-Despina Tudor at The Open University, UK

The project partners are: UK's Field Studies Council (Steve Tilling and Dave Morgan), UK's Association for Science Education (Richard Needham and Marianne Cutler) and Geographical Association (Becky Kitchen).

Reflections related to planning and conducting lessons with Google Expeditions

A class set up for a Computing lesson using Google Expeditions 

A class set up for a Computing lesson using Google Expeditions 

The project and Google expeditions

The Open University (OU), UK is conducting a school-based research project (funded by Google and the OU; July 2016 - June 2017) on the potential use of Virtual Reality via Google Expeditions in secondary school science and geography.

Google Expeditions is a Virtual Reality (VR) approach being promoted by Google in schools globally. Google Expeditions are guided tours (field trips) of places that students experience on a smartphone through a virtual reality viewer called Google cardboard.

In this blog-post, Professor Shailey Minocha and Dr Ana-Despina Tudor of The Open University share their reflections from observing Geography, Science and Computing lessons using Google Expeditions in UK's primary and secondary schools over the last few months.

Reflections

Choosing Expeditions:

Choose one to two expeditions that link together with the theme of the lesson. If it is an hour’s lesson, if there are more than two expeditions, students may make it difficult to reflect on what they see and also to complete other planned activities of the lesson.

Pre-plan the narrative that links the sequence of scenes within a expedition and across expeditions. 

The Expeditions can serve various roles. Some of these are:

  • an introduction to a new topic which will be covered in a series of lessons, say, respiratory system for biology students. 
  • exploring a particular theme – for example, climate change.  
  • for recap – consolidating the information given in several lessons, e.g. volcanoes and effects on people and the environment.
  • preparing students ahead of a physical field trip, e.g. spatial awareness of the London Olympic Park area and the associated changes in that part of London (social, economic and environmental impact) through a virtual field trip via the Expedition.
  • for imparting fieldwork skills - for example, in science, history and geography; e.g. observation skills, identification of species of plants and animals, risk assessment, etc.
  • during a physical field trip – to sensitise students about the issue under investigation – e.g. show the expedition environmental change in Borneo rain forests to sensitise the students about the effects of deforestation, etc. 

Lesson preparation:

Choose accompanying resources such as videos, photos only if they add value to the lesson and are indispensable for the learning intentions of that lesson. Too many resources of different kinds and which don't have an obvious or explicit connection may impair student concentration and learning. 

Equipment preparation:

In the first few lessons of using the expeditions, place the phones (with the App ‘Follow’ing the Guide on the teacher's Tablet) in the Virtual Reality (VR) viewers ahead of the lesson. However, as students get used to the technology and depending upon their ages, they will be able to start the App themselves and insert the phones in the VR viewers.  

During the lesson:

On the board/display: Display the learning intention(s) throughout the class to help students to focus on the objectives of the lesson and the expected outcomes. 

Showing the expedition(s): 

This sequence of steps might be helpful:

  • After a brief introduction, give students an opportunity for initial self-exploration: to look around and see for themselves without a commentary from you (the teacher). This will enable the students to get acquainted with the expedition, develop spatial awareness, and even identify some of the features that interest them.
  • Once they’ve finished the initial exploration, you could start guiding them through the scenes of the expedition: give a brief introduction and point them to the area(s) of interest. Some students may find it hard to look and listen at the same time, so you may alternate between commenting the scene(s) and letting the students explore without verbal prompting.
  • Give them time to continue looking around; then pause the expedition. This will prompt students to place their viewers on the desk and encourage them to start discussing with each other and explain about what they have seen – and/or ask students to highlight the observations that they have made thus far.
  • Continue with an introduction of what they are about to see next – and then start again. Giving them pauses will help them to assimilate what they have learned and also give their eyes a rest.
  • Towards the end of the slot of showing them the expeditions, alert the students that they have the last few minutes to look around and gather any final data and observations.
  • You may also like to connect your Tablet (with the Expedition running) to the projector to highlight any areas of interest for discussion. This will enable all the students to look at the same aspect being discussed. 

Depending on the lesson topic and on the intended learning outcomes, the teacher can either read out the information that is provided with the expedition in the 'Guide’ mode of the App or adapt it with their own content to suit their class. A teacher-created personalised narrative for their students may contribute to student engagement better than the teacher's reading out from the Expedition's content.

Activities alongside expedition(s): 

You might like to ask students to list their observations (situated in the learning intentions of the lesson) around a mind-map. This could be an effective way to capture individual observations from seeing the expedition(s). Students could discuss their individual observations in pairs/groups. 

In addition, and depending upon the level of the students, you could ask students to generate questions for further enquiry based on the mind-maps that they may have developed, e.g., 'What questions come to your mind about what you have seen?'

Alternatively, you may skip the mind-mapping exercise and only concentrate on the process of generating questions.

Through discussion and by the end of the class, you may short-list 3-5 questions for further inquiry in the classroom, laboratory, or in a physical field trip, for evidence collection, and for further discussion and reflection.

Resources for further exploration

Google Expeditions, https://www.google.co.uk/edu/expeditions/ 

Google Expeditions Pioneer Programme, https://edu.google.com/intl/en_uk/pioneer-program/ 

or https://www.google.co.uk/edu/pioneer-program

Google Expeditions Gallery, https://www.google.co.uk/intl/en_uk/edu/expeditions/gallery/#header  

Expeditions Teacher Tips, https://goo.gl/sWtqWC

List of Expeditions and links to lesson plans that are available, https://goo.gl/eJT3I9 or http://bit.ly/1GxJ9xf 

Lesson plans on Google Expeditions in TES, https://www.tes.com/resources/search/?&q=%23GoogleExpeditions

Google+ Community, Google Expeditions, https://plus.google.com/communities/106649979901042240651

About the project team

Professor Shailey Minocha and Dr Ana-Despina Tudor, The Open University, UK

The project partners are: UK's Field Studies Council (Steve Tilling and Dave Morgan), UK's Association for Science Education (Richard Needham and Marianne Cutler) and Geographical Association (Becky Kitchen).

Dr. Matthew Kam, Google Education